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    英譯中翻譯樣本

         

    ? Posterior and multidirectional instability represent a spectrum of disease encompassing posterior instability with
    dislocation, posterior unidirectional instability with recurrent posterior subluxation, bidirectional instability with
    posterior and inferior subluxation, and multidirectional instability with global laxity.
    ? Nonoperative approaches are the mainstay of treatment for most cases.
    ? History and physical examination, especially examination under anesthesia, are critical to selecting the proper diagnosis
    and treatment, as imaging studies are often nondiagnostic.
    ? Arthroscopic approaches allow a thorough evaluation of
    intra-articular pathology and a pathology-specific treatment approach.
    ? Arthroscopic treatment allows the surgeon to address labral tears, capsular laxity, capsular tears, and the rotator interval.
    ? Open procedures may be preferred in cases of bone loss and in certain revision cases.

    Posterior and multidirectional shoulder instability represent a spectrum of disease from posterior instability
    with dislocation to posterior unidirectional instability with recurrent posterior subluxation, bidirectional instability
    with posterior and inferior laxity, and multidirectional instability with global laxity. Posterior instability is
    uncommon, representing approximately 5% of all glenohumeral instability. However, more subtle cases of posterior
    subluxation or multidirectional instability are likely often undiagnosed. Classically, these patterns of instability
    have been treated with an open surgical approach
    (1). However, arthroscopic techniques have progressed to the point where they are an excellent option for treating
    these conditions. This chapter will review the diagnosis and treatment of posterior and multidirectional instability
    with an emphasis on arthroscopic surgical techniques.

    ? 肩關節的向后和多向不穩定可發展為一系列的疾病,包括:向后脫位型不穩定癥、頻發的向后單一方向半脫位不穩定癥、

    向后下方半脫位型雙向不穩定癥、全球松弛的多方向不穩定癥。

    ? 大多數情況下,非手術療法是現行的主要治療手段。
    ? 鑒于成像觀察通常無法進行診斷,病史檢查和身體檢查(尤其是麻醉下的身體檢查)對于明確診斷和選擇合適的治療方法相當關鍵。
    ? 應用關節鏡技術可以全面評估關節內病理和針對該病理所采取的具體治療方法。
    ? 骨科醫生可以利用關節鏡明確診斷出盂唇撕裂、關節囊松弛、關節囊破裂和肩袖間隙。
    ? 對于出現骨塊缺失和一些需進行手術修正的案例,可首選開放式手術進行治療。

    肩關節的向后和多向不穩定可發展為一系列的疾病,從向后脫位型不穩定到頻發的向后單一方向半脫位不穩定、后下方松弛的雙向不穩定、

    以及全球松弛的多方向不穩定。肩關節向后不穩定不常見,大約占所有盂肱處不穩定癥的5%。然而,有一些更加隱匿的關節向后半脫位或

    多向不穩定的情況常無法被確診出來。治療此類關節不穩定癥的慣用方法為開放性外科手術(1)。但是,關節鏡技術已經發展成為有效治

    療此類不穩定癥的一個很好的治療手段。本章將回顧肩關節多向和向后不穩定癥的診斷和治療,著重介紹關節鏡外科技術。

         

         

     
     
     
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